Prevalence of Non-glaucomatous Optic Atrophy in Ehime Mbano, Nigeria

Main Article Content

G. C. Ihesiulor
J. N. Chimchetam
U. A. Udo
C. O. Ahuama
C. O. Timothy
Omaka, Uma Andrew
O. G. Ihesiulor


Purpose: this population-based epidemiological study highlights the prevalence and causes of non-glaucomatous optic atrophy (NGOA) in Ehime Mbano.

Methods: In this prospective study, the case history, visual acuity, pupillary reflex and fundoscopy examination for three hundred and forty-nine (349) subjects between ages 17-85 was carried out using a pro forma, snellen chart, pen light and ophthalmoscope respectively. The presumed NGOA subjects (45) were further examined with perimetry and tonometry to rule out glaucomatous OA. The data collected was analyzed with the use of ANOVA and Chi-square statistical tests.

Results: The highest prevalence rate (20%) was accounted for by retinitis pigmentosa, nutritional amblyopia and unknown causes. Females (53.3%) more than males, had NGOA. Age ranges 57£77 had (20%) highest prevalence of NGOA. Most of the presumed NGOA cases (34.6%) had visual acuity of < 6/6-6/18 (20/20 – 20/63).

Conclusion: The total prevalence of NGOA in Ehime Mbano is 13.0%. The prevalence of NGOA is related to causes and visual acuity but not dependent on sex and age. More studies with larger sample sizes are however warranted to strengthen the correlation. Patients with presumed OA should be thoroughly evaluated as it may be a treatable condition or presentation of some other life-threatening conditions.

Optic atrophy, glaucoma, prevalence.

Article Details

How to Cite
C. Ihesiulor, G., N. Chimchetam, J., A. Udo, U., O. Ahuama, C., O. Timothy, C., Andrew, O. U., & G. Ihesiulor, O. (2020). Prevalence of Non-glaucomatous Optic Atrophy in Ehime Mbano, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Ophthalmology, 3(1), 1-9. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Lee AG. Neuro-ophthalmic afferent system diagnoses a general ophthalmologist should (almost) never make alone. Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009;16(1):41.

Ogun O, Adediran O. Non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy in Ibadan: Extrapolations to healthcare funding in Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine. 2014; 12(2):103-8.

Golnik K. Nonglaucomatous optic atrophy. Neurologic Clinics. 2010;28(3):631- 40.

DeWitt CA, Johnson LN, Schoenleber DB, Hainsworth DP, Madsen RW. Visual function in patients with optic nerve pallor (optic atrophy). Journal of the National Medical Association. 2003;95(5):394.

Bowling B. Kanski’s clinical ophthalmology: A systemic approach. 8th ed. Elsevier, editor: Elsevier; 2016.

Khurana AK. Comprehensive ophthalmology. 5th ed. Limited NaiPs, editor. Delhi: New age international Publisher’s Limited; 2012.

Obuchowska I, Mariak Z. Ischemic optic neuropathy. Pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostics and treatment. Klinika Oczna. 2006;108(4-6):238-42.

Abdull MM, Sivasubramaniam S, Murthy GV, Gilbert C, Abubakar T, Ezelum C, et al. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: The Nigeria national blindness and visual impairment survey. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2009;50(9):4114-20.

Olusanya B, Onoja G, Ibraheem W, Bekibele C. Profile of patients presenting at a low vision clinic in a developing country. BMC Ophthalmology. 2012;12(1): 31.

Oluleye TS, Ajaiyeoba A, Fafowora O, Olusanya B. The aetiology of optic atrophy in Nigerians–A general hospital clinic study. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2005;59(8):950-2.

Pedro-Egbe CN, Cookey S, Awoyesuku EA, Ani N. Nonglaucomatous optic neuropathies in Port Harcourt. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ). 2011;5: 1447.

Ndubueze D, Igboekwe MD, Ebong E. Assessment of Groundwater Potential in Ehime Mbano, Southeastern Nigeria. 2019;7.

Grosvenor TP. Primary care optometry. 5th ed. ed. St Louis, Missouri: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007.

Adegbehingbe BO, Majengbasan TO. Ocular health status of rural dwellers in south‐western Nigeria. Australian Journal of Rural Health. 2007;15(4):269-72.

Oluleye T, Ajaiyeoba A, Akinwale M, Olusanya B. Causes of blindness in Southwestern Nigeria: A general hospital clinic study. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2006;16(4):604-7.

Osaguona V, Ukponmwan C, Kayoma D, Okojie O. Ocular health status of patients seen at the screening centre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria-A preliminary report. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. 2012;11(2):44-50.

Onakpoya O, Komolafe E, Akintomide F, Ajite K, Komolafe M, Adeolu A, et al. Ophthalmic manifestations in patients with intracranial tumours. African Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2009; 28(1).

Raju K, Khader AA. Ocular manifestations of intracranial space occupying lesions–A clinical study. Kerala J Ophthalmol. 2009; 21:248-52.

Ayanru J. The tropical amblyopia syndrome (or tropical nutritional amblyopia) in the Mid-Western State of Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 1976;5(1): 41-8.

Oluwole O, Onabolu A, Link H, Rosling H. Persistence of tropical ataxic neuropathy in a Nigerian community. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2000;69(1):96-101.

Osaguona VB, Okeigbemen VW. Nonglaucomatous optic atrophy in Benin City. Annals of African Medicine. 2015; 14(2):109.

Chinta S, Wallang BS, Sachdeva V, Gupta A, Patil-Chhablani P, Kekunnaya R. Etiology and clinical profile of childhood optic nerve atrophy at a tertiary eye care center in South India. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014;62 (10):1003.

Chaddah M, Khanna K, Chawla G. Optic atrophy (Review of 100 cases). Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 1971;19(4): 172.

Omoti A, Waziri-Erameh M. Pattern of neuro-opthalmic disorders in a tertiary eye centre in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2007;10(2): 147-51.

Carta A, Ferrigno L, Salvo M, Bianchi-Marzoli S, Boschi A, Carta F. Visual prognosis after indirect traumatic optic neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(2):246-8.

Simon S, Torpy D, Brophy B, Blumbergs P, Selva D, Crompton JL. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and outcomes of pituitary apoplexy—a life and sight-threatening emergency. Signs. 2004;8(1/23).

Bajracharya K, Gautam P, Yadav SK, Shrestha N. Epidemiology and causes of optic atrophy in general outpatient department of Lumbini eye institute. Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences. 2015;3(2):26-9.

Loh R. Acquired optic atrophy in Singapore: A study. Singapore Medical Journal. 1968;9(2):73.